1. Abangan A variant of Islam perceived to be not of the ‘pure’ tradition which blends Muslim practice with localbeliefs in Java
  2. Adzan To recite the call to prayer; this ritual is also used by the villagers on entering the caves at Pamijahan
  3. Ajengan Religious scholar in the Sunda region
  4. Amalan Formulaic chants given to pilgrims by the custodian and the ajengan
  5. Apuputra Genealogical term, “begat”, thus “he/she has offspring”
  6. barakah Divine favour, blessing received by any good Muslim. In the local context of Pamijahan, this could be a blessing given to the place, to the wali.
  7. Babad A chronicle, sometimes also indicates “a manual” for making something, i.e. Babad Kawung, see below.
  8. Babad Pamijahan The chronicle of Pamijahan
  9. Babad Kawung ‘Instructions on the cultivation and use of the sugar palm’.
  10. Babad Tanah Jawi The Chronicle of Java
  11. bedog Sundanese machete
  12. Buku Sajarah A book of history
  13. Buruh Unskilled labourer in Pamijahan
  14. Cai zam-zam Water from the spring in the cave of Pamijahan, the name is taken from a famous sacred spring in Mecca
  15. Cai kajayaan Holy water from another spring in the cave, believed to give invulnerability
  16. Cai kahuripan Water from another spring in the cave, believed to heal any physical ailment
  17. Darul Islam “Home of believers”, the Islamic state
  18. Desa Village
  19. Desa pamijahan The village of Pamijahan
  20. Eyang Grand-grand father/mother, also used for ‘the ancestors”
  21. Fatwâ Interpretation or advice given by religious experts regarding theological and juridical cases
  22. Fuqaha Expert in Islamic jurisprudence
  23. Guha Karamat The “Sacred Cave”, the most revered site in Pamijahan
  24. Hadith Traditions based on the actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad
  25. Hadiyah “Gift”, the act of reciting holy texts as a gift for the souls of the dead
  26. Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca
  27. Hajj from Carang Deprecatory name given by Dutch colonial officers to refer to the “rebel” from Karang
  28. Hikayat Traditional story, account, history
  29. Ibadah Pious activity
  30. Ijazah Local inauguration given to a person who has completed a certain stage of Sufi learning
  31. Ilmu karang Magical knowledge associated with the karang area, both pre-dating Islam and after
  32. Imam Muslim leader
  33. Isnad Intellectual chain of transmission in Sufism
  34. Jabal kupiah The “rock of the hat”, a formation in the wall inside the sacred cave
  35. Jubah Long robe of Arabic style
  36. Jumaah Friday prayers
  37. Kabupaten, Regency
  38. Kabuyutan The term for a sacred space believed to have been inhabited and used for ritual purposes by the ancestors for centuries, yet still evident
  39. Kebatinan Batin, the inner aspects of the human being, hence Kebatinan, a set of practices among Javanese mystics
  40. Kacamatan Subdistrict
  41. Kaca-kaca The main gate to the Pamijahan area
  42. kâfir billah Unbeliever
  43. Kampung Village
  44. Kampung naga A traditional village located in the Tasikmalaya regency believed to have connections with the old Sundanese Kingdoms
  45. Kakantun Heritage
  46. Karamat Sacred
  47. Kapamijahanan Spatial concept referring to the Pamijahan entity
  48. Kapongpokan Spatial concept associated metaphorically with the tomb
  49. Karang Limestone,name of a place close to Pamijahan
  50. Karangnunggal “Single limestone formation, name of a place close to Pamijahan believed to have spiritual power derived from the pre-Islamic period
  51. Karuhun Ancestors
  52. karuhun urang Our ancestors
  53. Karya sastra Literary works
  54. Kasauran karuhun Ancestors’ words or sayings
  55. Kebatinan Inner knowledge, Javanese mysticism
  56. Kejaksaan District attorney
  57. Kelurahan Village administration
  58. Kemusnahan naskah The disappearance of manuscripts
  59. Ketua pongpok Leader of the four lines of family of the wali
  60. Kepala desa Village head
  61. Kesusastraan lama Old or traditional literature
  62. Khatib Leader of the Friday prayers as imam who may also give sermons
  63. Kitab Papakem Kuning “Book of the Yellow Guide”, oldest manual of guidance on Sufism in Pamijahan
  64. Kitab Patorekan Shaykh Abdu The Catechism of Shaykh Abdul Muhyi
  65. kitab tarekat Book of Sufi orders
  66. kolot urang Our ancestors, cf. karuhun
  67. kokocoran The “flowing of rivers”, genealogy, lineage
  68. Kitab Istiqal Tarekat Qadiriyyah-Naqhsabandiyyah Book on the Qadiryyah and Naqshabandiyyah orders
  69. Kris Dagger
  70. Kulambu Bed canopy, the silk covering of the sacred tomb
  71. kuncen Key bearers, custodians of the Pamijahan areas
  72. Imu laduni Special knowledge believed to endow the adept with a capacity for quick learning; in the local context, the ability to be in two places at once
  73. Lauk mijah “Fish hatchlings”, metaphor given to the Pamijahan area as a place for developing spirituality
  74. Maghrib Sunset prayers
  75. Makom 1. An advanced station in Sufism, 2. a grave yard
  76. Makom Bengkok The grave of Bengkok
  77. Makom Panyalahan The grave of Panyalahan
  78. Makom Yudanagara The grave of Yudanagara
  79. Makom Kangjeng Shaykh The grave of Kangjeng Shyakh
  80. Martabat tujuh The seven grades of being, the mystical doctrine of the Shattariyah order
  81. Maung Tiger
  82. Masjid Mosque
  83. Masjid Karamat Sacred mosque
  84. Menyan Incense
  85. Mutih “White diet”, a program of fasting for one conducting
  86. mystical practice, consuming only rice and water.
  87. Muhammadiyah The chief revivalist institution promoting a return to the Quran and the Sunnah
  88. Naskah kuno Old manuscripts, handwritten texts
  89. Neangan tarekah Finding a path, way
  90. Niatt Intention
  91. Nu nganteur A guide to the cave or graveyard
  92. Orang Jawa Barat The people of West Java
  93. paesan Tomb
  94. Paimaran A place in the mosque from where the imam leads ritual
  95. Pakuncenan Custodianship
  96. Pamujaan Place for worship
  97. Pakuat-pakait Interconnected/ness
  98. Pamasalahan The place for solving problems
  99. Panyalahan Village of those accused of the wrong siting of their village
  100. Perdikan Villages free of taxes under the time of Mataram’s influence
  101. Pasantren Traditional Islamic boarding school
  102. Penghulu A person in charge in religious affairs; traditional intermediary between the village and state
  103. Pitutur Narration, words of the ancestors
  104. Pongpok The four “sides” around Abdul Muhyi’s tomb, used to indicate the lines of descent from the Saint’s wives; a metaphor of social division
  105. Punduh Government apparatus in the village dealing with local administrative matters
  106. Pancuran Spring water from a bamboo pipe
  107. Pangeran Seda Lautan The “king who died at sea”
  108. paranti Customary tool, place regularly used for an activity, hence custom, tradition
  109. Paririmbon Various texts important to the villagers, associated with local knowledge and Sufism, containing instructions and prohibitions
  110. Patilasan Place which has been used by ancestors, hence, grave
  111. Pegon Javanese and Sundanese written in Arabic characters
  112. Petunjuk Guidance
  113. Perjuangan Mission (of Abdul Muhyi)
  114. Pitutur karuhun Sayings of the ancestors
  115. Pucuk Green leaves, new sprouts, associated with hope for the future
  116. Priyayi Aristocracy
  117. Qaraba Relatives, close linkages
  118. Rabiulawwal (Maulid) Third month of the Islamic calendar, in which the birth of the Prophet is celebrated
  119. Rajab Seventh month of the Islamic calendar, in which the Night Journey of the Prophet is celebrated
  120. Saur Sepuh Narratives of the ancestors
  121. Santri Pupil in a pesantren
  122. Shalat Daily prayers
  123. Shalat wajib The five daily formal obligatory prayers
  124. Sharî’ah Islamic law
  125. Shattariyyah The Shattariyah Sufi order
  126. Sastra Literature
  127. Sastra lama Old literature
  128. Sastra modern Modern literature
  129. Sejarah History
  130. Sejarah Babad Kuna Genre of narrative of pre- and early Islamic propagation in a region
  131. Sastra tradisional Traditional literature
  132. Sepuh urang Our ancestors
  133. Syahadat Statement of Islamic doctrine, recited during the obligatory prayers, and on conversion
  134. Surutu Cigar, often used by the locals in traditional Sundanese villages as an offering
  135. Silsilah Genealogy
  136. Surat wasiat Testaments
  137. Tajallî Illumination
  138. Tali paranti The strings of custom
  139. Talqin Instructions given to the murid (pupils) of a Sufi order; also instructions to the soul around the moment of death to prepare it for the hereafter
  140. Tanam paksa Forced agriculture, the enforced cultivation of plantation crops
  141. Tanah pasidkah Charity lands, once free from land tax, but today under government imposed taxes
  142. Tarekah The Way, Sufi order; also Sundanese word for any method or way to achieve an end
  143. Tarekat Sufi Order
  144. Tasawwuf Sufism
  145. Tatar Sunda, The Sundanese region
  146. Tawassul Mediation
  147. Tempat nu ziarah Pilgrimage place
  148. Tempat penziarahan pertama The first stage of visitation in Pamijahan
  149. Tempat cai zam-zam Place of sacred water
  150. Tempat cai kahuripan Place of healing water
  151. Tempat tapa, Place for meditation
  152. Tempat tawajjuh Place for coming “face to face with God”, place for contemplation or concentration
  153. Tentara Islam Indonesia Indonesian Islamic soldiers of the Islamic separatist rebellion in West Java
  154. Tetengger Tombstone
  155. Tirakat Vigilance
  156. Torikoh Shattariyyah Shattariyah order, Sundanese rendering
  157. Tukang batik Batik trader
  158. Turunan Successors
  159. Turuq Arabic plural form of tarekah
  160. Tutuik Words or sayings of the ancestors, meaning close to tuturan in Sundanese
  161. Tuturan Sayings
  162. Ujian sarjana Examination for achieving a degree
  163. Ulama, Islamic scholars
  164. Urang Jawa, The Javanese people
  165. Urang gunung People from the mountain
  166. Urang wetan People from the east, hence, the Javanese
  167. Urang Karang People of the Karang area
  168. Urang hindu Hindus
  169. Wujud makhlûq The realities of mankind
  170. Wahdat al-wujûd The Unity of Being, mystical philosophy
  171. Wali Saint
  172. Wali Sanga, The Nine Saints of Java
  173. Warisan kebudayaan Cultural heritage
  174. Wudu Ablutions performed before the formal prayers
  175. Wujud Haq Ta’la, The Reality, Essence of the Most High
  176. Yayasan Kakaramatan The non-profit Institution of the sacred places of Pamijahan
  177. Ziarah Pilgrimage

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